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أفضل 10 أسرار غريبة وحقائق عن اللون

2018-12-09 13:32:18 منوعات ...






10

Hominids مختلفة تستخدم الأحمر



ربما يكون اللون الأحمر هو اللون الأول الذي استخدمه البشر بكثرة. بدأت هذه الشعبية في عصور ما قبل التاريخ ولكن قد لا علاقة لها مع هوى نابض بالحياة. كان هذا مكافأة. ما جعل اللون الأحمر متاحًا على نطاق واسع وسهل الاستخدام. كان هذا الصباغ الطبيعي سهل العثور عليه واستخدامه. لم يتلاشى أبدا ، لكنه التمس الجلد والجدران. أولئك الذين استخدموا الطين لأول مرة لم يكونوا حتى البشر المعاصرين. كان أقدم اكتشاف عبارة عن مجموعة مكونة من 70 قطعة مغرة في موقع عاش فيه الإنسان المنتصب منذ 285000 سنة. كما رسمها إنسان نياندرتال منذ 250 ألف سنة. من بين أقدم التحف الهومو سابينية التي تنطوي على المغرة كانت عبارة عن غلاف يحمل خليطًا من الصباغ والدهون والفحم الذي يبلغ عمره حوالي 100000 عامًا. [1] كان لدى أوشر تطبيقات أخرى أيضًا. كان يستخدم لصبغ القبور ، والجلود المدبوغة ، ودرء البعوض ، وعلاج الحالات الطبية والأمراض الجلدية ، ويرمز إلى أشياء مختلفة. كان أيضا عنصرا في الغراء ومعالجة النباتات. ظلت المغرة قيد الاستخدام لفترة طويلة ، حتى من قبل الفنانين في العصور الوسطى وعصر النهضةعلى الرغم من أن الماء عديم اللون ، فإنه يغمق لون المادة. هناك علم مثير للاهتمام وراء هذا. لا علاقة للتعتيم بماكياج القماش أو أن النسيج الرطب أصبح أكثر قتامة. يحدث هذا الوهم بسبب الأطوال الموجية المكسوة بالعين البشرية. تحدث أشياء عندما يضرب الضوء جسمًا. هذا الأخير يمتص ويعكس كميات معينة من الضوء. إن الأطوال الموجية التي ترتد من الجسم والعودة إلى العين تخلق مفهوم اللون. قطعة قماش صفراء ، على سبيل المثال ، تمتص كل شيء ما عدا الأطوال الموجية للأصفر. اللون الذي نراه هو ظل الأطوال الموجية التي تنعكس. تجفف الأسطح الرطبة والجافة الضوء بشكل مختلف. إن البلل ، مثل الماء أو بقعة العرق ، يغير زاوية الضوء بطريقة تعكس المزيد من الأطوال الموجية الصفراء في القماش وليس في أعين الشخص. هذا يجعل المشاهد يرى بقعة رطبة أكثر قتامة ، مقارنة مع النسيج الجاف المجسم الذي يعكس المزيد من اللون إلى رؤيته

9لماذا بقع الماء مظلمة

nceعلى الرغم من أن الماء عديم اللون ، فإنه يغمق لون المادة. هناك علم مثير للاهتمام وراء هذا. لا علاقة للتعتيم بماكياج القماش أو أن النسيج الرطب أصبح أكثر قتامة. يحدث هذا الوهم بسبب الأطوال الموجية المكسوة بالعين البشرية. تحدث أشياء عندما يضرب الضوء جسمًا. هذا الأخير يمتص ويعكس كميات معينة من الضوء. إن الأطوال الموجية التي ترتد من الجسم والعودة إلى العين تخلق مفهوم اللون. قطعة قماش صفراء ، على سبيل المثال ، تمتص كل شيء ما عدا الأطوال الموجية للأصفر. اللون الذي نراه هو ظل الأطوال الموجية التي تنعكس. تجفف الأسطح الرطبة والجافة الضوء بشكل مختلف. إن البلل ، مثل الماء أو بقعة العرق ، يغير زاوية الضوء بطريقة تعكس المزيد من الأطوال الموجية الصفراء في القماش وليس في أعين الشخص. هذا يجعل المشاهد يرى بقعة رطبة أكثر قتامة ، مقارنة مع النسيج الجاف المجسم الذي يعكس المزيد من اللون إلى رؤيته

8Colorful Crab Mystery

Photo credit: discovermagazine.com

The coconut crab from the Indo-Pacific is a two-toned enigma. They are giant land crabs with a taste for coconuts, and they also come in three colors. The baby crabs are white. This part is normal as far as scientists are concerned because the paleness is linked to their juvenile form. When they grow up, however, the crabs randomly turn either a vibrant blue or red.

All attempts to find out why came up empty. There is no apparent reason why some turn red while others go Smurf. Tests on hundreds of crabs proved that the color difference had nothing to do with gender, location, camouflage, mate attraction, a specific behavior, or other physical reason. There was neither a clear benefit to being either color nor any competition. There was blue as much as there was red.

A very good reason must exist for why coconut crabs keep both shades, but nobody knows what it is. DNA might solve this riddle. In the future, scientists hope to find the genes behind each color as well as those linked to the crabs’ vision, which may reveal if the creatures can perceive blue and red.[3]

7The Mystery Of Blue

The human eye can distinguish about a million hues, but blue was a late bloomer. In the 1800s, researchers studied Homer’s poem The Odyssey. The long piece did not contain a single reference to the color blue. Instead, Homer used strange shades, including “wine-dark” for the sea.

In the following years, scholars tore apart Hindu, Chinese, Icelandic, Arabic, and Hebrew scripts. There was no word for “blue.” The first people to use it were the ancient Egyptians, the sole culture who knew the secret to blue dye production. Modern scientists are trying to find out if this multicultural lack of talking about blue meant that humans could not perceive the color.

An interesting study was published in 2006. The Himba tribe from Namibia has no specific term for “blue” and does not distinguish it from green. During tests, they struggled to pick one blue square among 11 green ones.[4]

However, they have an extraordinary ability to detect different shades of greens that other people cannot see. Studies like these suggest that blue was as abundant as today, but the human eye could not separate it as a distinct shade until recently.

6Toxic Green Blood

Photo credit: sciencealert.com

The New Guinea skink is odd. From the outside, it looks like a normal lizard. But inside, nearly everything is green, including blood, skeleton, muscles, and membranes.

Usually, blood is red because of hemoglobin, the pigment that carries oxygen. The New Guinea skink’s blood has another pigment, biliverdin. As red blood cells die, biliverdin is produced and too much hides the red of hemoglobin. Such large concentrations are toxic. Humans and other species have systems in place to eliminate the pigment.

In 2018, a new study shed some light on the bizarre creatures. After building a family tree of over 50 types of Australasian skinks, they discovered that the green-blooded ones were not related. This means that the evolution of toxic blood and tissue was not a single event. Instead, it evolved separately in five species.

For something to show up repeatedly in unrelated skinks proved that the biliverdin dominance was not accidental. Scientists cannot explain what perks the green blood offers or how the reptiles survive what is essentially an overdose of biliverdin.[5]



5The Troxler Effect

Photo credit: Live Science

Ignaz Troxler was a Swiss doctor and polymath. Even though his name is not widely known, his legacy lives on in the weird “Troxler effect.” Intrigued by colors and objects that faded away while still in his vision, he wrote about it in 1804. This disappearing trick recently made the rounds on the Internet by way of a page infused with soft pastel colors.

Staring at it (see the image above) makes the page go blank, almost by magic. The second the viewer’s attention returns, the colors rush back. Scientists allow Troxler’s theory that the peripheral vision eventually erases unchanging details, but they have a better understanding of what is going on.

The Troxler effect happens to everyone on a daily basis. Without it, most people would go nuts. We encounter too many stimuli, which the brain counters by fading anything it deems to be unimportant. That’s why most people forget the clothes they wear and that their noses are visible.

The pastel page’s content disappears because peripheral details fade by adopting the color of the surrounding white as retinal cells receive no new information. Essentially, this illusion bores the brain into dismissing it.[6]

4Dinosaur Colors Live On

Photo credit: Smithsonian Magazine

Many modern bird species produce eggs with beautiful shells. Recently, researchers found that the two pigments responsible, protoporphyrin and biliverdin, also turned up in an oviraptor’s eggs. An oviraptor is a tiny dinosaur resembling a bird.

To find out more, scientists broadened the study. They analyzed eggs from existing birds, including terns, emus, and chickens. For comparison, they turned to the fossilized eggs of 15 Cretaceous species and extinct birds. What they found shattered the belief that shell colors are a recent development in bird eggs.

The two color pigments showed up in more ancient eggs, especially those of eumaniraptoran dinosaurs. This is significant because they are the ancestors of living birds. Incredibly, some eumaniraptoran shells were patterned, pigmented at the same depth as modern eggs.[7]

The colorful camouflage likely developed when some dinosaurs abandoned buried nests in favor of guarding their eggs on the ground. Incredibly, this means that tinted shells evolved millions of years before the birds that lay them.

3Humans Change Color

Photo credit: The Telegraph

In 2018, researchers proved that idioms such as “green with envy” were not just prose. Depending on the emotion, human faces really do change color. This chameleon habit, which is linked to blood flow, is very subtle. Most of the time, hues are so light that other people only subconsciously pick up on the person’s true emotions.

The affected areas curve around the eyebrows, cheeks, chin, and nose. With the help of a computer program and an understanding of how humans see color, scientists revealed facial rainbows for the first time.

Disgust bloomed as a blue-yellow shadow around the mouth and colored the forehead and the nose with red-green. Happiness infused the cheeks and temples with red but tinted the chin blue. Strangely, “surprise” was close to “happiness,” with a redder forehead and a chin with less blue.

Looking at pictures of a neutral face, volunteers were mostly able to pick the right emotion when its colors were superimposed on the image. Other pictures showed the wrong shades for an expression—for example, happy colors on an angry face. But the volunteers instinctively felt that something was wrong, although they could not say what.[8]

2Hadwiger-Nelson Breakthrough

Photo credit: sciencealert.com

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